Friday, July 3, 2020
The Return of the Native, by Thomas Hardy, begins with personification of a majestic heath, the setting for this novel: The face of the heath by its mere complexion added half an hour to evening; it could retard the dawn, sadden noon, anticipate the frowning of storms and intensify the opacity of a moonless midnight to a cause of shaking and dread. Yet these emotionally intense descriptions are extremely misleading, for in reality the heath is an inanimate object which possesses no feelings, opinions, or biases. It is an immortal place, and continues to exist as its inhabitants live their lives and die. In contrast with the heath is man himself: mortal and vulnerable, selfish, and always looking to advance his place in the world. This novel shows the dominance of nature over man, stressing mans impermanence against the infinity of nature. This belief, also known as fatalism, is emphasized throughout the novel. This view is shared by the character of Clym Yeobright, who survives at the end of the story, but is contrasted by Eustacia Vye, who rebels against these ideas, leading to her own downfall. The views of these characters are emphasized through their own actions, their interactions with other characters in the book, allusions to biblical references, and the use of motifs. Fatalistic views can best be illustrated through Clym Yeobrights character and relationships with the other characters of the novel. On his own, Clym believes that everyones lives are predetermined, and that fate will direct what will happen to a person. Because of this, Clym is able to constantly revise his lifestyle to adapt to what his life brings to him. He takes all of his successes and failures in stride, because he knows within his life there is an underlying reason and plan for what is happening. His first big life change occurs when he decided that life in Paris was not for him, and that he must return to his native land, and live his life on the heath. This is almost like a birthright, for although he is an extraordinary person, shown through his description, at heart he is a man of the heath. Clym is again forced to make a modification in his lifestyle when he is blinded. This is a major set-back to Clyms plans of setting up a school to educate the people of the heath. But, instead of being devastated by it, as Eustacia is, Clym decides to continue on with his life as best he can in spite of this new obstacle. Although he is an exceptional person, Clym finds no shame in becoming a furze-cutter, the typical job of a heathsman. He even enjoys the job, as, the monotony of his occupation soothed him, and was in itself a pleasure [his] effort offered homely courses. Clyms enjoyment of his new work shows that he is at peace with physis, and he sings songs of delight while working. This flexibility that Clym shows in his lifestyle exemplifies his notion of fatalism, and shows how he survives life on the heath. During the novel, there is an al lusion to Oedipus, [Clyms] mouth had passed into the phase more or less imaginatively rendered in the studies of Oedipus. This allusion is really the mention of Clyms partial parallel, as he is very much like Oedipus in numerous ways. In the tale of Oedipus, he gouges his eyes out when he finds out that he married his mother; Clyms equivalent is that he is blind. When Oedipus first came back to the town of his birth, the people lauded him as a hero and gave him the gift of the queen; later, however, when the truth was discovered that the queen was really Oedipus mother, it caused much harm and bad happenings. Likewise, everyone on the heath is very happy to have Clym return from Paris, but after a while, his return causes disturbances on the heath, and leads indirectly to the deaths of Mrs. Yeobright, Eustacia, and Wildeve. In addition, it is suspected that Clym has an Oedipus complex, and that name is derived from Oedipus marriage to his mother. This shows fatalism because th e entire story of Oedipus is based on a series of omens (which told of his fate), and miscommunications. Because Oedipus is a partial parallel to Clym, Clyms return to the heath can be seen as being predetermined, as Oedipus life was based on fate as well. Fatalism is also shown through the people of the heath. The people who live there are innocent and simple, trying to cope with their day-to-day struggles as best they can. Their dialect, which is simple and softly accented, illustrates their naturalness, Twas to be if Ã «twas, I suppose.' These people lead menial lives; still they accept, and are content with, whatever comes their way. This is a part of what makes them so innocent. It is this fatalistic approach that allows them to survive live on a place like the heath, and to be happy and at-one with nature. One way they try to cope with this harsh, rustic lifestyle is through rituals. Their annual November 5 bonfire introduces the heathfolk into the story. This bonfi re is their way of trying to lighten the darkness of the coming winter, which could be symbolic of the dismal lives they lead. They enjoy dancing around the bonfire in a circle, and, even after the fire goes out, they continue with their dance, showing of their untold peace with nature. Dancing seems to be a common practice at most other special events: You be bound to dance at Christmas because Ã «tis the time o year; you must dance at weddings because Ã «tis the time o life. At christenings folk will even smuggle in a reel or two' These dances help to put hope and good times into the heathfolks lives and to be together as a community. Thomasin could also be considered as a person of the heath, for she is simple and natural, and abides by the laws of nature. Thomasin is first described as possessing, A fair, sweet, and honest country face reposing in a nest of wavy chestnut hair The grief had abstracted nothing of the bloom The scarlet of her lips had not had time to abate These numerous references, (country, nest, chestnut, bloom, scarlet (as in berries)), illustrates how Thomasin was very much in accordance with nature. Thomasin reveals her fatalistic views when dealing with her relationship with Wildeve. Although she knows that it is not truly in her best interest after their non-marriage, Thomasin agrees to marry Wildeve again. She realizes that if she does not marry Wildeve that the heathfolk will gossip about her and Clym will be ashamed. This self-consciousness helps her stay on-track with her fate. She accepts Wildeves second marriage proposal with the following view: I agreed to it [because] I am a practical woman now. I do not believe in hearts at all. I would marry him under any circumstances' Throughout the novel, Thomasin goes along with her fate, and is rewarded with happiness at the end of the story through her second marriage. However, not all heathpeople are as in sync with nature as Thomasin. Christian Cantles character shows views opposing fatalism. This is a very superstitious man who is afraid of most everything. Basically, his fears take him out-of-line with fate, yet it is also his fears that put him back on-track. This is illustrated during the November 5 bonfire. When darkness comes, Christian is the only person who suggests that all the heathfolk head home right away and that, Fifth-of Novembers ought [not] to be kept up by night except in towns. It should be by day in outstep, ill-accounted places like this! This suggestion is spurned by the universal human fear of the dark and unknown. However, what he is suggesting would break rituals, which are the way for the heathfolk to cope in their fatalistic society. However, the other heathfolk tell him that is a foolish idea. Christians low self-esteem gives him fear of speaking out against them, and he returns to his fated course. Another time, Christians extreme superstitious nature leads to rebellion as well. When he wins a raffle on the way to delivering guineas to Clym and Thomasin, Christian thinks that this is a sign that he is lucky. Although he has no wife or girlfriend, his prize of a gown-piece elates him. This leads to his game with Wildeve in which he lost all of the guineas that were supposed to be delivered directly to Thomasin and Clym. His superstitious nature allowed him to get involved in something so risky, but, despite his flaws and mistakes, Christian is basically at-peace with nature, and feels very much at home on the heath. In contrast with Clyms ability to accommodate his life to survive the heath, his mother, Mrs. Yeobright, cannot fulfill her ananke, as she goes against her fate, and, consequently, dies. This occurs when Mrs. Yeobrights fatal flaw is revealed; she has a bad habit of meddling into her childrens affairs. When this is combined with her ananke, which is to bare the burden of Thomasin and Clym, it leads to disaster. She, like most other heath people, disapprove of Eustacia Vye, and when she finds out that Clym is interested in her, is unhappy. One day, when she and Clym are walking on the heath, they separate; Clym heads to Mistover Knap to see Eustacia, while Mrs. Yeobrights destination is for the Quiet Woman Inn. Mistover Knap is representative as a place for outsiders, and Mrs. Yeobright is burdened because she knows that Clym is on the wrong path. This separation to different places on the heath is also symbolic of the start of a spiritual separation between Mrs. Yeobright and Clym that will never fully be resolved. After this, Mrs. Yeobrights meddling becomes an issue when she interferes between Thomasin and Wildeves marriage by plotting to give Thomasin money unbeknownst to Wildeve. This use of money, which is an unnatural substance, goes against physis, and causes sinister happenings to occur. The money causes a slew of misunderstandings and coincidences which lead to Mrs. Yeobrights journey to Clyms house. The closed door incid ent is too much of a burden for Mrs. Yeobright, and she is at the point of being unable to continue to fulfill her ananke. Her dying words are, I have a burden which is more than I can bare. This leads to the establishment of Clyms ananke, which is to bare the burden of his mothers death. This is quite ironic because his mothers ananke was to bare the burden of him; in a way, they have reversed roles. Although Mrs. Yeobright could not fulfill her ananke because of her fatal flaw of meddling, because Clym holds fatalistic views and can easily adapt to new obstacles in life, he is able to continue to flourish on the heath. Contrary to Clym, Eustacia Vye held rebelled against fatalistic views. Her dream is leave the heath, which she feels she doesnt belong in. Ironically, her ananke is to stay on the heath. This discrepancy between fate and Eustacias rebellion of, or misconceived notions about, her fate, are shown immediately with her introduction. When she is first incorporat ed into the story, she is standing on top of a high hill. Hardy decides to introduce Eustacia as being higher than nature, almost superhuman, a goddess. She is observed to be so high in the air that, nothing that could be mapped anywhere else on the celestial globe. It being twilight, the way the sun reflects onto the hill, Eustacias observer cannot distinguish where the hill ends and Eustacia begins. Hardy says that Eustacia gave the hills a perfect, delicate, and necessary finish. Eustacia is truly meant to be a part of nature. But, as incredible as she looks as a part of nature, she moves, and the effect on the hill is palpable: the discontinuance of immobility in any quarter suggested confusion The figure perceptibly shifted a step or two [resulting in] displacement Eustacias movements were awkward, and disturbed the beauty of nature that she should have beautified. Her awkwardness in this scene is symbolic of her rebellion against nature and her fate. It also shows the irony of how this superhuman character who should be the goddess of nature, decides to rebel against her subjects. This introductory scene sums up Eustacias fatal flaw and foreshadows her conflict with the heath. Besides being a goddess of nature, there is an allusion to the Queen of Love, symbolic of Eustacia. There is something about Eustacia that makes men fall in love with her. As she rebels against being the goddess of nature, she also abuses her privileges of being the Queen of Love. The combination of her rebellion and abuse leads Eustacia to whatever she wants, illustrated through Wildeve, Clym, and Charley. It was destined that Wildeve would marry Thomasin. However, Eustacia could not accept this, because she wanted to prove she could be with Wildeve if she so wanted. On the night of his wedding, Eustacia sets a bonfire as a signal to him to meet her. Being the Queen of Love, naturally Wildeve cannot turn down this summoning. Besides interfering with fate, (Thoma sin and Wildeves), she uses the bonfire, a symbol of the innocence of the heathpeople, and turns it into a sign of corruption. Even after Wildeve and Thomasins marriage, she stays in contact with Wildeve, and, when she gets depressed over the fact that Clym will not, or cannot, leave the heath, Eustacia falls back on Wildeve to get her out. Eustacia should never have been in contact with Wildeve after his proposal to Thomasin, because he and Thomasin are destined to be together. This refusal to accept fate leads to sneaking around, Mrs. Yeobrights death, Thomasins suspicions, Clyms anger, and, ultimately, Eustacias death. Just as Wildeve cannot resist helping Eustacia when she needs a favor, Charley, a young heathman, has the same problem. He is infatuated by Eustacia and will do anything for her. While Charley only holds a small part in the book, his entire role consists of helping Eustacia. When Eustacia wants to dress as a mummer to get into the Yeobright Christmas party t o see Clym, Charley is more than willing to help her for the price of fifteen minutes of holding Eustacias hand. When his fifteen minutes are up, Charley is regretful that he used all fifteen minutes and can barely let go of Eustacias hand. Although Eustacia could care less about Charley, this admiration adds to her conceit that she can have any man she wants, including Clym. Later in the book, Charley sees Eustacia gazing at the guns in her grandfathers house, contemplating suicide. At this point Eustacia has hit rock bottom, and, protectively, Charley locks up the guns in the stable. It is Charleys love of Eustacia, and his heathfolk innocence, which keeps her alive; he doesnt just physically prevent her potential suicide, but shows her that people still care about her. Although still depressed, Eustacias small rejuvenation allows her go on, but leads her to plot with Wildeve to go to Budmouth. Once again Eustacia is trying to leave the heath. When this materializes, and s he is about to leave for Budmouth, she dies, because the heath cannot allow even a goddess to go against fate and break her ananke. In regards to Clym, Eustacias flaws included over-confidence and an abuse of her position as the Queen of Love. When Eustacia finds out that Clym is returning to the heath, she immediately knows that she will be with him. It is at this point that she hastily tells Wildeve that she will not marry him. This frees her for Clym, who she thinks will bring her to Paris, a life that she dreams of constantly. Eustacia does not have any doubts that Clym will not think twice before fulfilling her wishes, even before they have met. When they finally encounter each other, Eustacia and Clyms fascinations are mutual. However, they are so infatuated with each other that neither of them listens to each others wishes, and there is unspoken hostility; Clym plans to stay on the heath and set up a school for the heathpeople, whereas Eustacia thinks that Clym is goin g to be her knight, and sweep her away to Paris. Eustacia is so conceited and used to everyone doing whatever she wants she believes that Clym will eventually abide by her wishes, even if they conflict with his own. But this is not what happens, as Clym is no ordinary person. Clyms ananke becomes clear when Mrs. Yeobright dies, and he knows he must stay on the heath to bare the burden of his mothers death. He is not as quick to yield to anothers wishes without considering his ananke, which cannot be fulfilled if he journeys abroad. Even so, Eustacia still has hopes of Paris until Clym goes blind. At this time, she realizes that they will never leave the heath, and that their marriage isnt working out. When Eustacia hears Clym singing while working as a furze-cutter, she cannot take it anymore. Eustacia becomes crazed, and leaves Clym. Once again her conceit overwhelms her, as she feels she is better than having a furze-cutter for a husband, and feels that Clym should feel t he same way. Eustacia could have lived as the goddess of nature and the Queen of Love and accepted the life that was given to her on the heath if she would have abided by her fate. But, her narcissism and pride, hybris, made Eustacia think that she was better than the people of the heath, and she viewed her surroundings with condescension. Eustacia was an extraordinary person; she was supposed to help the heath, not belittle it. When she tried to escape with Wildeve, her ananke was clearly being broken, and the result was death. Eustacia fought against the inevitable, which was one argument that even she was not above. However, Eustacia lead a life of torment as an outsider, because she held different beliefs and dreams than the average heathperson. Yet, in her death, Eustacia was happy and peaceful. The description of Eustacias dead body car.ries a reference to light, her complexion seemed more than whiteness; it was almost light. Her expression is described as pleasant, an d following descriptions carry references to nature, with the words country and forest. These all hold positive connotations, and I believe that with her death, she was ironically happy, peaceful, and finally in-sync with nature. She was at last free of the dejectedness of the heath.In a story based on the greatness of nature and preaching the goodness of a simple life, Thomas Hardys fatalistic views can be summed up with the appropriately primitive theory of survival of the fittest. Those on the heath that followed fate and could adapt to their surroundings, (Clym, Thomasin, Christian, and the heathfolk), survived. On the reverse side, those on the heath who could not deal with traditional life, (Mrs. Yeobright, Wildeve, and Eustacia), perished, leaving room for new and potentially better citizens to occupy their places. Through Clym and Eustacias actions and interactions with other characters in the book, Hardy shows that he favors this view and tries to emphasize that indivi duals should not rebel against fate, because, as the word implies, it is inevitable. The heath will be forever; mankind is only transitory. Instead of unhappy rebellion, man should aim for the most of what life offers in ones lifetime, and a happy, fulfilling existence will follow.
Posted by Aldo Begay at 2:44 PM
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
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Posted by Aldo Begay at 10:32 AM
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1821 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/04/15 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Veterans Essay Did you like this example? This paper critically examines specific and current treatment practices by Americas Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It shows the VA relies too heavily on addictive narcotics for pain relief, and on antidepressant medications that are often associated with serious adverse side effects. The VAs penchant for such treatments overlooks the rising efficacy of harm reduction practices in the battle against drug addiction. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Current Treatment Practices Of Veterans Affairs" essay for you Create order The paper maintains the VA would enhance harm reduction by allowing the therapeutic use of medical marijuana for veterans. Medical marijuana poses a safer and more effective alternative to the dangerous drugs prescribed by the VA. As such, Federal Law should be amended to allow the VA to prescribe medical marijuana for veterans suffering from specific physical and/or mental health conditions. To appreciate the potential roles of medical marijuana in harm reduction, it is necessary to understand some basic facts about the drug and its current applications. Marijuana is a derivative of the Cannabis sativa plant (Turna, Patterson, Van Ameringen, 2017). Despite long-standing prohibitions, it is the most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S., not to mention the world (Turna et al., 2017, pp. 1006-1007). Although cannabis is frequently used primarily for its relaxing and euphoric effects, humans have been harnessing its therapeutic properties for centuries and it is currently used to alleviate many physiological and psychiatric conditions (Turna et al., 2017). Hill (2015) explains that the active chemicals in medical marijuana are cannabinoids, which enhance or mimic the effects chemicals produced by the human body to optimize appetite, movement, pain relief, and other functions. Although there are dozens of cannabinoids, the two most important in health research and practice today are: (1) cannabidiol, which appears to have significant antianxiety and possibly antipsychotic effects; and (2) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is responsible for marijuanas euphoric effects (but might have psychotic effects in some users). Medical marijuana consists of cannabidiol, THC, and other cannabinoids. Due to cannabidiols tendency to moderate THCs psychoactive properties, marijuanas therapeutic effects depend on the ratio of cannabidiol to THC. Therefore, THC-cannabidiol ratios in different strains of marijuana have been engineered to obtain various desired therapeutic effects. Hill (2015) further explains that depending on rapidly evolving state and local laws, Americans may now purchase medical marijuana in a variety of forms via authorized dispensaries, though not from traditional pharmacies because it remains illegal at the federal level. Patients also, legally or illicitly, grow cannabis for the treatment of many health conditions. Two U.S. Food Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cannabinoids are also currently available in pill form: dronabinol and nabilone. Both are FDA-approved for appetite stimulation in wasting disorders and for treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. Strong evidence currently supports the use of medical marijuana, especially in the treatment of chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and nausea (Turna et al, 2017). In the states permitting its use, medical marijuana is most commonly approved for treatment of conditions such as cancer, epilepsy, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, nausea, and severe and/or chronic pain (Hill, 2015; Turna et al, 2017). It should be noted that research on marijuana has long been funded and undertaken by groups supporting anti-pot agendas; therefore, it is unsurprising that literature on cannabis efficacy as a medical treatment is somewhat inconsistent (Hill, 2015; Turna et al, 2017). Indeed, some inconsistencies are perhaps to be expected. For example, if a large number of people with anxiety use marijuana illicitly when conventional prescribed treatments fail, one would expect to see higher levels of anxiety among marijuana users due to the potential legal consequences. Seizing on this opportunity, ant i-pot groups have been quick to cite these levels as evidence that marijuana causes anxiety (Hill, 2015; Turna et al, 2017). Despite the political and moral battle, facts show anxiety is a top-five medical symptom driving North Americans cannabis usage (Turna et al, 2017)Ã¢â¬ even though as of 2015 no state had approved medical marijuana specifically for the treatment of anxiety (see Hill, 2015, pp. 2475-2477). Turning back to the VA, one condition for which medical marijuana should be a major harm reduction force is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is as a trauma and stressor-related disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition, DSM-5) stipulates its diagnosis is based on exposure to a precipitating traumatic event (criterion A) and then meeting criteria B (intrusive symptoms), C (avoidance), D (negative changes in cognition and/or mood), and E (adverse changes in arousal and reactivity) (Shishko et al., 2018). Shishko et al. (2018) report that, while the incidence of PTSD is alarmingly high within the general U.S. population, with a 12-month prevalence of 3.5 percentÃ¢â¬ the estimated incidence among veterans is almost seven times as high at 24 percent (pp. 86-87). Beyond the disabling impacts of PTSD itself, 80 percent of individuals also have comorbid psychiatric disorders with emotional, physical, and dissociative symptoms that further u ndermine essential functioning, employment, personal relationships, and even basic self-care. In their analysis of published evidence pertaining to the use of cannabis and cannabis derivatives by veterans with PTSD, Betthauser, Pilz, and Vollmer (2015) explain that, when inhaled, delivered orally or via the skin, cannabinoid receptors activate to modulate the release of neurotransmitters. This release produces many central nervous system effects such as pleasure enhancement and changes to our memory processes. These positive physiological effects support the rationale for using cannabinoids to treat three core PTSD symptoms: re-experiencing, emotional numbing and avoidance, and hyper-arousal. Betthauser et al. (2015) describe studies which reveal direct correlations between severe PTSD symptoms and increased motivation to use cannabis in copingÃ¢â¬ particularly among patients with poor stress tolerance and/or troubling emotional ranges. High-quality research is limited, but analysts found four studies whose data link veterans cannabinoid use to the reduction of specific PTSD symptoms such as nightmares and insomnia. However, more well-designed controlled trials are clearly needed to further explore cannabinoids as a complementary or alternative option to todays conventional treatment for PTSD in veterans. Betthauser et al. conclude the existing evidence shows that significant numbers of veterans with PTSD currently rely on cannabis and/or cannabis derivatives to control their PTSD symptoms. Also, many of these users report benefits such as reduced anxiety, reduced insomnia, and enhanced coping abilities. Medical marijuana could also help the VA reduce the harm associated with antidepressants. Turna et al. (2017) explain that anxiety-related disorders are the most common mental health conditions observed in veterans and the general U.S. population. In the U.S. the primary pharmacological treatment for anxiety disorders and many of their comorbidities are antidepressants. However, despite massive investments in these drugs, treatment response rates to standard antidepressants remain so poor that between 40 and 60 percent of patients receiving them continue to have residual/impairing symptoms. Worse, the antidepressants are linked to major, often disabling side effects which lead to high levels of noncompliance, discontinuation, and seeking alternative treatments. Furthermore, Burgess et al. (2016) describe troubling complications related to the VAs reliance on opioids in pain treatment. On one hand, there are concerns, despite evidence that African-American veterans and other patients often experience more severe and disabling chronic pain than whites, African-American patients are less likely to be prescribed opioids. These findings have understandably raised concerns about under-treatment of pain in African-Americans. At the same time; however, Americas current and devastating public health crisis of opioid addiction raises alarm bells about the possible effects of efforts to correct racial disparities in pain treatment. If doctors were to continue to choose opioids to address pain under-treatment in blacks, even greater harm may result as more Americans are subjected to addictive and often lethal treatments. Worse still, there are serious reasons to doubt that increased prescriptions of opioids for African-Americans would actually reduce pain under-treatment. In a study involving veterans, Burgess et al. (2016) analyzed whether pain-related outcomes vary by race among veterans with a diagnosis of chronic non-cancer pain and whether opioid use could improve any observed racial disparities. The study showed, regardless of race, receipt of an opioid prescription was not associated with perceived treatment effectiveness for most patients but was associated with greater pain interference. In other words, the opioids failed to improve treatment outcomes and contributed to higher incidences of pain that interferes with or limits ones regular physical, mental, and social activities. Burgess and colleagues conclude that their findings raise questions about the benefits of opioids for musculoskeletal pain and point to the need for alternative treatments for addressing chronic noncancer pain (p. 13 ). By 2015, at least 19 states specifically approved medical marijuana for the treatment of serious pain (Hill, 2015). There are multiple potential applications for medical marijuana in the application of much-needed harm reduction practices at the VA. An important element of such harm reduction would be to minimize the adverse effects of treatment stoppage. Although the research is rather inconsistent, it seems likely that, as with all drugs, long-term use of marijuana even for therapeutic purposes would result in harmful effects at least for some individuals (Irons et al., 2014). Care must be taken to ensure safe and healthy discontinuation once the therapy is no longer needed. Fortunately, evidence indicates that discontinuation of medical marijuana would be decidedly less complicated than is the case with the highly addictive and harmful opiates and other treatments the VA currently prescribes. A study of 84 cannabis dependent veterans by Irons et al. (2104) suggests that even individuals with marijuana use problems could achieve successful cessation through timely quit efforts that include fairl y intense exercise. The subjects were veterans who volunteered to participate in self-guided cessation. The results indicate that participants who engaged in moderate to high levels of physical activity were significantly less likely than those reporting low activity levels to report a cannabis lapse during the week following a quit attempt. By contrast, participants with low levels of physical activity were likely to report greater average use of cannabis in the first four days of the cessation period. Therefore, veterans treated with medical marijuana should be able to stop using more easily than those using many of the VAs current, often highly addictive and dangerous treatments. Americas veterans have put their welfares and lives on the line to defend and promote our freedoms and nations interests. The nation dishonors their valiant and selfless service by failing to address even their most basic needs. The VA currently relies heavily on treatments that are linked to harmful side-effects and are ineffective, addictive, and even life-threatening. Americas veterans clearly deserve better. Fortunately, the steadily evolving research indicates that medical marijuana could be an important step in promoting harm reduction and a long overdue step by the VA. Medical marijuana could be used to safely enhance treatment for various conditions affecting veteransÃ¢â¬ with lower risks of side effects and cessation problems compared with many current VA treatments. Federal Law must be amended to grant the VA the latitude to prescribe medical marijuana, where appropriate, for veterans with diverse physical and mental health issues. At the very least, this shift in policy would reduce harms resulting from the VAs current treatment practices.
Posted by Aldo Begay at 11:12 AM
Friday, May 15, 2020
4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Management is an important part of project development. It deals with all the main areas for project development like Feasibility, Requirement analysis, Project Schedule, Project Plan etc. We have used the Project management approach to deal with all the series. It is achieved by proper selection of Software Life Cycle Model. 4.1 FEASIBILILITY STUDY 4.1.1 Technical Feasibility In current environment people have forget their things more and more in busy and daily scheduling. So they are mainly waste their time to find those lost or misplaced item thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why people loss their valuable time in finding their important thing. This problem faced by many people. So thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why solution is the key finder application which I will develop. This product is already not available in market because I add some extra feature to find the things and I add one of the useful feature for take a selfie. In my project requirement is one hardware BLE device and one android phone which operating system has require 4.3 and above and will support the Bluetooth 4.0. In the android smartphone this application is install any place and any time its free of charge. BLE device cost is 350 to 400 rupees. This product is very useful for the finding pets, finding child, finding pen drive and daily useful things. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s save lots of valuable time and reduce the lose thing. 4.1.2 Time Schedule Feasibility Time Schedule Feasibility is defined as a how long our project is demanded andShow MoreRelatedProject Management Processes On A Development Project Essay1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing a series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date with a limited budget. Because of its nature, coordinating all these activities requires a process approach. For many times development project take on unexplored territory, assumptions about the project must be listed, evaluated, its risks assessed and contingency plans developed. It also requiresRead MoreProject Management Methodologies For The Development Essay981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION The first chapter introduced the research problem that raised the question of whether adaption project management methodologies can be tailored down to Nigerian SMEs. This chapter presents the academic literature pertinent to the research, and places it in context of the research. The aim of this chapter is to provide the background information of the research topic and to show the gaps in the research literature, so as to identify the areas this researchRead MoreAgile Development And Project Management Essay1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2: Agile Agile development and project management has its roots in the Information Technology world. A large portion of the information that follows in the next two chapters refers to IT related development and projects. That being said, Agile is not limited to IT and in fact the model is expanding well beyond strictly IT. Agile is a necessary and effective part of the evolution of project. As stated previously, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment traditional or plan-driven Project Management typically definesRead MoreThe For Project Management Capabilities Development2929 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages2.1 INSTUTIONS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT The evolution in institutes and association in project management had Initial activities concentrated on information exchange and project practices but soon expanded into the area of certification. The requirement for certification standardization by the associations - first PMI in USA, and later APM in UK, developed their own reference documents. The first version of its (Guide to the) Project Management Body of Knowledge in 1976 andRead MoreRole Of Project Management On Restaurant Development981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Role of Project Management in Restaurant Development Opening a restaurant is not a simple process. There are various checklists that needs to be gathered first. Once all the checklists are available, selection process will begin. At that period various options needs to be eliminated and potential options should be kept. Project management plays an important role to ensure the available options are implemented within a budget and estimated timeframe. According to Fabris (2014), space designRead MoreMethods Of Software Development Project Management1807 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThere are several methods of software development, out of these most practically used are agile methodology and the plan driven approach this is a summary of both the approach and their comparison and compatibly with the user requirement for the better results and hybrid technique which resulted in combination of agile methodology and plan driven method with a comprehensive spectrum of tools and options Agile development is a methodology, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a tool, itÃ¢â¬â¢s notRead MoreBusiness Analysis Project Management Delivery Development Management1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSkilled Senior Business Analyst and Project Manager with outstanding capability in the development and delivery of complex applications and architecture, backed by 15 years experience. Promoted to the Executive Management Committee of MediSwitch and received multiple awards including CEO Award and Leader of the Year Award. Expert in all aspects of business integration management and change management. Able to provide critical support to large multi-million-dollar tenders, ensuring proposals are viableRead MoreSustainable Project Management Methods and Techniques for Sustainable Games Development3934 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesintegrated in projects and project management. The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on the importance of considering sustainability in projects and evaluate appropriate methods and techniques for embedding sustainability principles in project management. This essay is organized in four main parts. The importance of considering sustainability in project is critically analyzed in the next part. Methods and Techniques for the integration of sustainability in project management are evaluatedRead MoreProject Management: An Initiative Toward Development of Employees and the Company1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Project Management Paper University of Phoenix MGT/437 Project Management Paper Rapid growth of technology in the marketplace has companies examining ways in which businesses operate on a normal level. Managers face challenges with the task of adapting to a changing surroundings and a different breed of employees. Managers must implement a different approach that will allow them to become accustomed to situations that develop inside and outside of the company (Kerzner, 2006). ProjectRead MoreHow The Prince2 Methodology Can Be Implemented Into The Management Of Large System Development Project1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescarried out to find out how the PRINCE2 methodology can be implemented into the management of large system development project in other to produce the required outcomes from the project so as to reduce the chances of failure in the project. Thorough investigation into all aspects involved in managing projects with PRINCE2 such as: the variables controlled in project, how its principles can be applied in large project, the various process to be applied were carried out as well as the benefits and
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The main theme of ÃâOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck is fate . The techniques he uses such as the title , repetition , echoes and symbolism are very successful in putting across his very pessimistic views on this theme . br brThe two main characters , George and Lennie , share a dream . George dreams of a piece of land of his own . Independence . A couple of acres , a cow and some pigs . Lennie dreams of tending rabbits . With the title ÃâOf Mice and Men , Steinbeck is telling you that this dream whilst on the verge of realization , will be destroyed by fate . br brIt relates to Robert Burns poem ÃâTo a Mouse . Burns and Steinbeck share the same pessimistic views on fate . In ÃâTo a Mouse Burns shows that he believes that just asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦br brThe introduction of Curleys wife adds another piece to the puzzle . Her description when she was standing at the doorway with her Ãârouged lips , Ãâ hair hung in little rolled clusters and Ãâcotton house clusters shows that she will be the one who destroys George and Lennies dream . This technique is simple but very effective . br brGeorge had told Candy of his dream and Candy wanted in on it . Candy had the money to purchase the land required from compensation received after his arm had been cut off by machinery . This moved them to the verge of achieving their dream . br brIn my view the most successful technique in illustrating John Steinbecks view of fate is the symbolism in the last chapter . ÃâA watersnake glided smoothly up the pool , twisting its periscope head from side to side , and it swam the length of the pool and came to the legs of a motionless heron that stood in the shallows . A silent head and beak lanced down and plucked it out by the head , and the beak swallowed the little snake while its tail waved frantically Ãâ. The heron , motionless and waiting , represents fate while the watersnake , helpless and unaware , is its victim . br brSteinbecks view on fate is illustrated again by the word choice . Words like lanced , plucked and waiting suggest that Steinbeck believes that fate striking is almost medical ; sure and precise . br brThe watersnake could represent almost anyone in the novel although it is most likelyShow MoreRelatedThe Endocrinology Of Male And Female Reproduction1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReproductive physiology is comprised of many tightly coordinated functions of the endocrine system including the hypothalamus, pituitary and reproductive organs whose dynamic function plays several critical roles in growth and development as well was reproduction. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis plays a critical role in the development and regulation of the reproductive system. These tightly regulated functions within the pituitary must respond to continuously changing signals from the central nervousRead MoreAbnormal Psych and Disorders1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesscientists discovered a protein called stathmin that is necessary to create fear memories and a protein called gastrin-releasing peptide that Ã¢â¬â in mice, at least Ã¢â¬â helps control the fear response. It was found during experimenta tion that mice that did not produce stathmin were less likely than other mice to freeze up when confronted with a frightening event, as were mice that produced more GRP (NIMH, n.d.). Scientists have also noted that different parts of the brain are involved in the formation and extinctionRead MoreThe Role the Media Played in Helping the United States Join World War II1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesculture was seen to be inherently democratic as it was produced Ã¢â¬Ëby the people for the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ (Murray 142) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Women were also warned that if they did not work then a soldier would die, people would call them slackers, and they were equivalent to men who avoided the draft. Ã¢â¬ (Rupp 96) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"The United States still often referred to the Japanese as Ã¢â¬Å"JapsÃ¢â¬ or other racially derogatory names. The words and images left to us by propaganda remain in a nations collective memory.Ã¢â¬ (Navarro) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"We Can DoRead MoreThe Effects Of Canned Food On People s Health1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescancers amongst other chronic illnesses (Breast Cancer Fund, 2015). Prostate cancer has devastating effects amongst men with about fifteen percent of American men suffering from the cancer (Bienkowski, 2014). The increment in the estrogen levels in males is linked with the enhancement of the susceptibility of men suffering from prostate cancer. The stem cells of persons are critical in the replenishing of organs throughout life and the exposure to BPA amongst other compounds with high estrogen levelsRead MoreTrap Ease Americ A New And Unique Mousetrap Worldwide3642 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesa bigger tube that allows for bigger mice/rats that are often found outside of homes to be caught, could be another potential idea which may appeal to other groups that should have been considered in the market segmentation. MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s early market research suggested that women (often stay at home mothers/wives) were more willing to buy Trap-Ease over the traditional mouse trap, however Martha failed to evaluate her target market correctly. MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of the market lacked the 5 core conceptsRead MoreThe Yellowing Of Philadelphi Yellow Fever Essay2210 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWalter Reed used human volunteers to show that a mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, was critical in the distribution of the disease. Theiler proved that the cause of Yellow fever was not a bacterium but a filterable virus, by finding the viral origin of the disease thus he was able to identify how the disease was spreading. Theiler s major path of discovery wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t till 1930 when he ran a series of test on mice and found that the propagation of the virus florist in the brain. these test led toRead MoreExploring Aspects of the AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Essay2711 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageshave a higher risk of developing the disease than men, although nothing has proven in studies yet (6). The symptoms of Alzheimer disease are easy to overlook, since many believe that the symptoms are related to old age. People that have developed AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s will begin to have difficultly communicating, thinking, and reasoning properly, these changes may have a severe impact on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is critical that people who are experiencing memory loss, receiveRead MoreTestosterone in Rodents Essay2649 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesbehaviors for an even broader scope of reasons. Perhaps no other hormone has gained the public notoriety of testosterone. Long considered a masculine hormone, testosterone is inextricably coupled in the minds of the public as the hormone that makes men tick. To its effects are attributed all things manly, from muscle and hair growth to aggression to an unwillingness to ask for directions. But what are the true effects of testosterone on the body, and are they different in humans as compared to otherRead MoreDifferent Critical Success Factors Of An Erp System3115 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesFEDERATION UNIVERSITY AUSTRALIA Enterprise System ITECH-5402 Different critical success factors in different types of implementation, particularly in ERP upgrades and conversation to different ERP systems and how they can help in successful implementation? Team Assignment 10/7/2014 Team member: Syed Mohammad Zohaib 30100782 Niranjan Reddy 30100765 Abstract This report focuses on the issues when implementing an ERP systemRead MoreMental Health And Its Effects On Health5556 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesskills are critical to the assessment of a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental process as it allows us to understand if the child is meeting the developmental milestones. If the child is not meeting these milestones, a child may be diagnosed as developmentally delayed. Thinking skills are used as criteria in the process of diagnosing a child as developmentally delayed and can help us understand in what aspects a baby is delayed. Child development professionals screen infants during the developmental evaluation by assessing
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Master Harold and the boys - Inclusion in the Curriculum Essay In his masterpiece Master Harold and the boys, Athol Fugard has journeyed deep into sensitive issues including racism and growing up, without sacrificing the high technical standard that often distinguishes great theatre. The poignant and enlightening journey that is Fugards piece undoubtedly deserves inclusion in any English curriculum, with the works characterization, themes, conflicts and motifs all earning this distinction. With only three characters sharing dialogue and one of these playing a minor role, detailed characterization is a highlight of Master Harold and the boys. The major protagonist, Hally, is a white seventeen-year-old intended to be anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thematically, Master Harold and the boys covers two sensitive and important issues, which are key to any education program. The first theme, which must be examined, is that of white superiority and racial segregation, instigated by the Apartheid system. Fugard, through the course of the play, makes it clear in subtle references that the white race is considered to be superior to the black in South African society. One such subtle reference is made when Hally says: Dont try to be clever, Sam. It doesnt suit you. (35). As the climax develops, Fugard begins to display this in more blatant dialogue, with lines such as Hes a white man and thats good enough for you (53), reflecting the prejudice and segregation that plagued society at that time. A further example of Fugards references to this issue of white supremacy is depicted when Sam attempts to convey to Hally the simple beauty of ballroom dancing, yet Hally dismisses it as mentally retarded (39) and the culture of a primitive black society (43). It is not until he puts aside this fa-ade provided by white ideology that he can grasp the true worth of Sams comments. The second major theme in the work is that of growing up, and doing this with the traps of society. Hally is a boy at the crossroads of childhood and manhood, and the opinions and ideals he learns at this point will likely shape the rest of his life. The society of white supremacyShow MoreRelatedTexts Fof Written Discourse7878 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pages | |bring up | | | Try to use the majority of them while speaking of the main character of the essay. 8. Pick out school terms and words having to do with school-life. Comment on them. Education: Doing Bad and Feeling Good by Ch.Ã Krauthammer 9. A standardized math test was given to 13-year-olds in six countries last year. South KoreansRead MoreTexts Fof Written Discourse7893 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pages | |bring up | | | Try to use the majority of them while speaking of the main character of the essay. 8. Pick out school terms and words having to do with school-life. Comment on them. Education: Doing Bad and Feeling Good by Ch.Ã Krauthammer 9. A standardized math test was given to 13-year-olds in six countries last year.Read MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 PagesPROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES, SECOND EDITION - PROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES, SECOND EDITION HAROLD KERZNER, Ph.D. Division of Business Administration Baldwin-Wallace College Berea, Ohio John Wiley Sons, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper. @ Copyright O 2006 by John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored inRead MoreTop 1 Cause for Project Failure65023 Words Ã |Ã 261 Pageschange requests and a proper change management process goes a long way to ensure that change requests get the proper attention and approvals to be considered of inclusion. The PM needs to be a skilled negotiator to be able to guide the process and to help to push out non essential changes to the next phase. 6. [pic] Harold Kimmey, PMP Systems Development Coordinator at Antares Management Solutions I must be lucky enough to have overcome most of the others becauseRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesChulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. He received a B.A. in psychology from Claremont McKenna College and a Ph.D. in management from State University of New York at Buffalo. He is a certified project management professional (PMP) and Scrum Master. Clifford F. Gray CLIFFORD F. GRAY is professor emeritus of management at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He continues to teach undergraduate and graduate project management courses overseas and in the United States; he has personallyRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 PagesCenter Management Recent Titles in Library and Information Science Text Series Library and Information Center Management, Sixth Edition Robert D. Stueart and Barbara B. Moran United States Government Information: Policies and Sources Peter Hernon, Harold C. Relyea, Robert E. Dugan, and Joan F. Cheverie Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions Thomas R. Kochtanek and Joseph R. Matthews The Complete Guide to Acquisitions Management Frances C. WilkinsonRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagestextbook to provide full and informed coverage of a range of contemporary developments in the field. Notably, it includes diverse contributions to organization theory made by critical management studies. It really is pathbreaking in terms of its inclusion of material that does not appear in other texts. Professor Hugh Willmott, Cardiff Business School, UK This is one of the most up-to-date and comprehensive texts in the field of organization studies. It takes the reader through different perspectives
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The Disbursement Acceleration Program (DAP) is a stimulus package under the Aquino administration designed to fast? track public spending, and pushes economic growth. If we are to request a DAP audit, will it answer the following questions: How was the new budget items arrived at? Where did all these monies go? Which were the provinces, cities, and towns? Who were the service providers? Were they chosen thru competitive bidding? And who were the real beneficiaries? There is no rationale at all for allowing the legislators to identify projects. What happened here? Why did the executive department allow this to happen? In this sense, the Disbursement Acceleration Program should not be implemented because it does not contribute in the GDP and economic growth of the country, although it may have been partially successful, its rediscovery has drawn reaction as Ã¢â¬Å"UnlawfulÃ¢â¬ , aside from being unconstitutional, it does not serve, neither its spending was translated to over-all increase of jobs, nor trigger a downturn in poverty incidence. Background Two years ago, the government was roundly criticized for causing an economic slowdown. Upon assumption into office in the third quarter of 2010, the Aquino administration applied the brakes on government spending, particularly on infrastructure. At first, it was because it had little choice; the President lamented how his predecessor had already spent most of the budget allotted for the entire year. In the following year, the spending cutback continued, this time because government, in its push for Ã¢â¬Å"matuwid na daan,Ã¢â¬ worked to improve the quality of public expenditures and stop erstwhile massive corruption leakages. As explained by Budget Secretary Florencio Abad, government decided to cancel projects embarked on by the previous leadership that were found Ã¢â¬Å"wanting in economic viability and credibility. Ã¢â¬ Meanwhile, Public Works Secretary Rogelio Singson was plugging loopholes in his departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement and bidding systems, slowing implementation of programmed infrastructure projects in the process. For five consecutive quarters, beginning when President Aquino assumed the reins of government, public construction dropped consistently by as much as 58.Ã 6 percent year-on-year in one quarter. The economy grew by only 3. 9 percent in 2011, down from a hefty 7. 3 percent in 2010. The project cancellations earned for government the displeasure of, even legal action from, donor agencies. The resulting growth slowdown drew severe criticism from business and other economy watchers. It was in this context that the Development Budget Coordinating Committee (DBCC), chaired by Abad and composed of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s key economic managers, saw urgency in accelerating government disbursements to reverse the slowdown. Thus was the DAP born. In October 2011, the DBCC prescribed the following criteria for projects to be supported under DAP: (1) fast-moving or quick-disbursing; (2) urgent or high priority in terms of social and economic development objectives; and (3) well-performing programs or projects that could further expand benefits to the public with additional funds. How were funds sourced? Funds used for programs and projects identified through DAP were sourced from savings generated by the government, the realignment of which is subject to the approval of the President; as well as the Unprogrammed Fund that can be tapped when government has windfall revenue collections, e. g. , unexpected remittance of dividends from the GOCCs and Government Financial Institutions (GFIs), sale of government assets. Body The use of DAP successfully sustained the pace of public spending as well as economic expansion. The Philippine economy grew by 3. 7 percent in the fourth quarter of 2011, from 3.1 percent and 3. 6 percent in the second and third quarters, respectively. On the supply side, real GDP growth in the fourth quarter was mainly propelled by the robust performance of the services sector, as well as the strong performance of the public construction subsector. On the demand side, household and government consumption, and public sector infrastructure investments supported growth. With a 2. 9 percent growth in net primary income, gross national income grew by 3. 5 percent. (Paderanga) The Disbursement Acceleration Plan worked. Not only were we able to push the level of government spending towards the tail-end of 2011, we were also able to achieve a better-than-expected fiscal deficit level equivalent to 2 percent of gross domestic product. (Abad) President AquinoÃ¢â¬â¢s recent defense of his DAP (citing its Ã¢â¬Å"Selective Use of StatisticsÃ¢â¬ to hype growth in the country) is an exaggerated interpretation of a misleading World Bank report. The World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s March 2012 Philippines Quarterly Updated said that Ã¢â¬Å"the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s DAP was partially successful and contributed 1. 3 percentage points to GDP growth in [the fourth quarter of] 2011. In the November 19, 2013 decision of the Supreme Court magistrates, who voted 14-0 in ruling to bar the PDAF or the legislative pork barrel, which, like the DAP, constituted lump sum funds in the national budget, we can say that DAP is unconstitutional. So, since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s already such a ruling on the legality of lump sum appropriations, then one can clearly see that the DAP violated the Constitution, too. Associate Justice Antonio Carpio, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s the most senior of the 14-member high tribunal, took the position that all lump sum appropriations in the budget are illegal. Ã¢â¬ The other budget rule that flows from the above is that savings have to be generated from their respective appropriations and applied only to items of their respective appropriations. General provisions in the GAA 2001, GAA 2002, and GAA 2003 uniformly provide that Ã¢â¬Å"In no case shall a non-existent program activity or project, be funded by augmentation from savings or by the use of appropriations otherwise authorized in the act. Ã¢â¬ Put simply, if a program, activity or project does not exist in the GAA, then it cannot be augmented from savings. Put differently, what is called Ã¢â¬Å"cross-borderÃ¢â¬ augmentation as called by some associate justices, meaning the use of savings from one office to augment the budget of another office, is illegal. Yet, Secretary Abad admitted that DAP was used to augment the budgets of the House of Representatives and the Commission on Audit, and that savings of the Executive Department were used to augment the budget of the Commission on Elections. Fatal mistake. (Teodoro, 2013) DAP can be considered as part of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s vast presidential pork barrel Conclusion As a whole, the defense of DAP still fell short of justifying the organized allocation almost P 1 trillion in open fund including the supposedly abolished PDAF (Priority Development Assistance Fund), regular agency lump sums, unprogrammed funds, other savings and off budget items. That we even find ourselves in this debate is symptomatic of how broken our system of government is. It indicates a complete breakdown of controls, which puts into question our very system of government. The virulence of corruption has seriously tainted vital government institutions Ã¢â¬â among others, Congress, executive departments, agencies, government and controlled corporations and local government units. It also puts into question the existing auditing, budgeting processes, procedures and control mechanisms. With cases now being filed, our justice system will also be put to the test. The PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s Box has been fully opened. And if the P10-billion Napoles pork barrel and the Malampaya funds scandals are just a tip of the iceberg, chances are, more gargantuan scams involving public funds are waiting to be uncovered. For all the moral anguish and outrage that Filipinos are going through, the silver lining here is that the pain could have a cathartic effect. Had these scandals not been unearthed, the corrupt would continue with their merry ways, wrecking more serious havoc along the way. But now, the guilty must be quaking in their feet. The fuse ignited by Benhur Luy and the other whistleblowers will definitely result in an explosion that will rack the country to its very foundations. But in the end, it will give us an opportunity to rectify our broken system of governance; and, if we learn from all of this, it is a precious opportunity to correct past mistakes to allow for a better society to emerge.
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